Mars is the fourth planet from the sun and the second-smallest planet in the solar system. Larger than only mercury carrying the name of the Roman God of War. And is often called the ” Red Planet“. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere. With surface features reminiscent of the impact craters of the moon and the valleys, desserts, and polar ice caps of earth. It has an active atmosphere, but the surface of the planet is not active. Its volcanoes are dead. Like earth Mars has seasons, polar ice caps, volcanoes, canyons, and weather. It has a thin atmosphere made of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon. There are signs of ancient floods on Mars, but now water mostly exists in icy dirt and thin clouds.
Mars is approximately half the diameter of the earth, with a surface area only slightly less than the total area of earth’s total area of dry land. It is also comparably less dense than Earth, having about 15% of earth’s volume and 11% of earth’s mass, resulting in about 38% of earth’s surface gravity. Mars consists of minerals containing silicon and oxygen, metals, and other elements that typically make up the rock. It’s thought that, during the solar system’s formation, Mars was created as the result of a stochastic process of runaway accretion of materials from the protoplanetary disk that orbited the sun. Experiments formed by lander showed that the Martian soil basic pH of 7.7, and contains 0.6% of the salt perchlorate. This a very high concentration and makes the Martian soil toxic.
The current understanding of planetary habitability – the ability of a world to develop environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life – favors planets that have liquid water on their surface, Most often this requires the orbit of a planet to lie within the habitable zone, which for the Sun extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars.
By the 19th century scientific speculations that its surface conditions might support not just life but intelligent life. Thus originated a large number of science fiction scenarios which is H.G. Wells’ The war of the worlds, published in 1998, in which Martians seek to escape their dying by invading Earth.